Management Challenges For The 21st Century (1999)
Futurework - Trends and Challenges for Work in the 21st Century Executive Summary. PDF Version -
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Futurework - Trends and Challenges for Work in the 2. Century. Futurework - Trends and Challenges for Work in the 2. Century. Executive Summary. PDF Version - . Not the front page—but the want ads.
A few decades ago, employers were in search of typists, switchboard. LAN operators. Desktop.
And many job seekers no longer turn to the want ad pages but to the. Web pages. They find their jobs on the Internet. Just a few decades ago, business magazines celebrated the latest office. Today, it is more like digital phones and personal digital.
We are living in a world few could have imagined 5. What will the. workforce and workplace look like half a century from now? We can begin to tackle that question by examining where we have been, where. That is what futurework: trends and. It is designed to inform readers—policy- makers, scholars, employers. Futurework also recognizes that even though we are celebrating the.
Labor Day of the twentieth century, the twenty- first century work- place is. We are living in a new economy—powered by technology, fueled by. And we are entering the new century with.
The American economy is the strongest in a generation—perhaps in. Unemployment is at a 3. We have created more than 1. President Clinton and Vice President Gore entered office. The sea of. budget red ink has been turned to black.
Wages are up, productivity is rising. There are three pillars providing stability in workers’ lives. Rising economic security over a lifetime—so a worker can have food on.
A work and family balance—the resources and the time to enjoy family. Workplaces that are safe and fair—free from health hazards and from. The ability of workers to meet these needs will be substantially determined. These. changes include: Diversity.
By 2. 05. 0, the U. S. Immigration will. The. population of older Americans is expected to more than double. One- quarter of. all Americans will be of Hispanic origin. Almost one in ten Americans will be.
Asian or Pacific Islander descent. And more women and people with. Technology. The use of computers and the Internet in workplaces will become more. The influence of technology will go beyond new equipment and faster.
Increased global competition will continue to affect the type of work being. American work- places, creating new high- skilled jobs and lessening. The impact of globalization on all Americans will. Working families will continue to pursue stability in the midst of these. Three major challenges for the. The challenge of being skilled, not stuck in the new economy—as.
This. executive summary is an introduction. SKILLED, NOT STUCKOur nation is enjoying high rates of productivity growth thanks in large. As that trend continues, it will lead. Americans meet. the need for economic security. During the Clinton–Gore administration, more than 1. High- technology industries account for one million of these new. E- commerce generated $3.
Real average wages in the high- tech industries increased 1. The average high- tech job pays 7. Even for those workers who do not sit in front of a computer or program a. Technology also has fundamentally changed work as we know it. For instance. assistive technology has opened new opportunities for people with disabilities. From the late 1. 97. Though the trend of rising inequality that we experienced for almost two.
The top 1. 0 percent of. And according to the Bureau of Labor. Statistics, the real earnings of men in the bottom group fell by 2. Some middle- aged workers are losing the security they once had. During the. first half of the 1. While many workers will continue to be in occupations that do not require a.
In fact, the 2. 0 occupations with the highest earnings all require at. Throughout the economy, occupations that. Today, it is 7. 1 percent.
Less- educated workers of. Men with only a high- school degree have. Two out of three high- school graduates will enter college this fall. But not. everyone has the same opportunity. Fewer than 1. 0 percent of adults with. The percent of adults with disabilities who have not. Asian- Americans have the highest high- school graduation.
High school completion rates were far. Hispanics, the fastest growing segment of. More African- Americans, whites, and Hispanics are attending college. This means that these minority groups lack access to many of the.
A 1. 99. 6 American Management Association survey of mid- size and larger. That percentage increased to almost 3.
America does not face a worker shortage but a skills shortage. The challenge. is to invest in the workers who are already participating in the workforce, and. Prepared not. . We need to make. Technology, and the skills needed to.
In some. industries, such as telecommunications, the issue is not job security, but. Regardless of his or her skill level, it is essential to make work pay for. No one who works full time should live in poverty.
Raising the. minimum wage and expanding the Earned Income Tax Credit are two policies that. Collective bargaining historically also has played an important role. In. 1. 99. 8, unionized workers overall earned nearly one- third more than nonunion. Unionized Hispanics made more than half again as.
Unionized workers. In addition, a 1. For others, they were always a myth.
Today, Harriet. usually does not stay home. Nearly three out of four women with children are in. Often, neither Ozzie nor Harriet get home by 5: 0. The time. that married women with children spend working outside the home nearly doubled. Workers seeking to balance sufficient earnings with family time are.
They are searching for the time and flexibility to be there when the. To make arrangements with the caregivers for. To attend the parent- teacher conference or the. And as we look to the future, the vital challenge of. In 1. 99. 6, almost 2.
American households provided informal care to. Futurework finds that this. Combined with the responsibilities of child care, these obligations add up. Family caregiving costs the economy more than $1. As baby boomers grow older, and life.
Americans will find themselves . While women. in particular are affected by this phenomenon, they are by no means alone in. Men and women will share equally in the challenges of. This new mindset will dramatically affect the. The good news is that technology is allowing workers to take the office. That’s the bad news, too. With e- mail, pagers, laptop.
The virtual office never closes, opening the potential for abuse if. We need. to make sure that workers use technology—not the other way around. Technology can give workers flexibility, but access presents another big. The home office is becoming more commonplace. Half of all homes had a. But even though the Internet can be accessed. Americans have equal access to the Internet.
As information. technology expands, the information divide continues to widen. A July 1. 99. 9 Commerce Department report found that between 1. Internet access between those at the highest and lowest income levels. Whites are more likely to have access from home than are. African- Americans or Hispanics from any location. As technology continues to spread, questions emerge: What are we losing as. What is the effect on social relations?
Work, after all, is more. It is where we meet friends, share ideas, and. With voice mail, e- mail. What takes its place?
Employers want. greater flexibility to compete in the global market. One result is that the traditional work arrangement—a full- time. In addition to the traditional way of modifying a schedule through part- time. The age of . Roughly 1 in 1. Nearly four. out of five employers use some form of nontraditional staffing arrangement. A growing number (1.
The number of agency temps increased by. For many employers, these arrangements make sense. They can be less costly.
Workers, too. may be attracted to the mobility and choice associated with nontraditional. In some cases, these arrangements may provide the flexibility they need. For example, slightly more than half of. Roughly one in four independent contractors.
Full- time, independent contractors earned more than average traditional. Agency temps’ average weekly. In. addition to earning less, temp agency workers are more likely to be young. While alternative working arrangements can help those who choose a. In fact, 5. 9 percent of agency temps would prefer a traditional job. In. addition, many temps who work part time would prefer to work full time but are.
Empowering workers with. In the twenty- first century, the most successful workers will be those who. The challenge will come. Today, many do not. Today’s nontraditional workers receive less training and fewer. Only seven percent of agency temp workers receive employer- provided.
Nontraditional work arrangements can raise practical and legal. Workers may be. unsure of their rights, and firms may be unsure of their obligations. America will be many faces and many. The question is not whether. It. is not so much a choice as a challenge. We live in a uniquely multiracial, multiethnic society—and it is. We find our roots in every corner of the.
We speak every language. We know every culture. And capitalizing on. America’s workforce of the future will include more people of color. Americans, women, and people with disabilities. The availability of.
Closing the gap The narrowing of gaps in society shows that we are already making some of. Americans. Wage gaps. As more. women enter the labor market and spend longer hours there, the pay gap between. African- Americans have also made progress, albeit over a longer. In 1. 94. 0, the average African- American man earned only 4. Today, it’s 7. 6 cents.
Women and. minorities continue to earn less than their white male counterparts. The. earnings of African- American and Hispanic women are only 6.
White women earn about 7. About. 4. 0 percent of that pay gap can’t be explained by differences in. It appears to be. Barriers not only affect wages in the workforce, but also the path to. Even in this booming economy, people are being left. The unemployment rates for African- Americans and Hispanics have declined to.
But the unemployment rate of.